BIO 264 - Anatomy and Physiology I
BIO 264: Human Anatomy and Physiology I is the first part of a two-semester course that prepares students for further study in the health and medical fields. The second course is Bio 265: Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Both of these courses have a lab that is taken separately from the lecture portion of the course. Most students must take both the lecture portion and the lab portion to fulfill prerequisite requirements. This course is the lecture course for Bio 264. It includes 12 modules. The modules begin by examining important physiological chemistry principles. Then the course instructs students in the biology and physiology of the cell. The rest of the course will examine the nervous and muscular systems. Please note that this course is NOT acceptable for biology major credit. If you are a biology Major, you should probably be in a different course.
Module 01: Terminology and Homeostasis
- 1.1 Identify and understand key terminology relating to anatomy and physiology
- 1.2 Demonstrate understanding and application of homeostasis as it relates to variables, control systems, and feedback loops
- 1.3 Distinguish between negative and positive feedback loops
Module 02: Principles of Inorganic Chemistry
- 2.1 Define atoms in terms of subatomic particles as they relate to mass, charge and distribution and ultimately elements. Define atomic number, mass, weight, and isotope.
- 2.2 Explain the role of electrons in differentiating among ionic, covalent (polar and non-polar) and hydrogen bonds.
- 2.3 Explain the role of water and salts in the body and define acid and base and the concept of pH.
Module 03: Principles of Organic Chemistry
- 3.1 Describe the building blocks and general structure of carbohydrates
- 3.2 Describe the building blocks and general structure of proteins and the four levels of protein structure
- 3.3 Describe the building blocks and general structure of lipids with emphasis on triglycerides and phospholipids
Module 4: Cell Biology
- 4.1 Explain and describe the location of eight major cellular organelles.
Module 5: Biological Membranes
- 5.1 Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane
- 5.2 Compare and contrast passive and active membrane transport processes.
- 5.3 Describe osmosis as it pertains to osmolarity and tonicity
- 5.4 Define the membrane potential and explain how it is established and how action potentials are related to cell function
Module 06: Introduction to The Nervous System
- 6.1 Explain the organization of the nervous system
- 6.2 Describe the neuron and how it participates in synapses
- 6.3 Describe the neuroglia cells of the CNS and PNS
Module 7: Skeletal Muscle
- 7.1 Describe the macro and micro-organization of the three main types of muscle tissue
- 7.2 Describe the functions of the three main types of muscle tissue
- 7.3 Explain the molecular mechanisms involved in excitation-contraction coupling.
Module 8: Metabolism
- 8.1 Describe what ATP is and how it is used in the body
- 8.2 Explain what ATP does
- 8.3 Explain how ATP is made by both substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.
- 8.4 Describe Metabolism by explaining the processes of Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain.
- 8.5 Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
Module 9: Control of Body Movement
- 9.1 Describe the areas involved in voluntary control of skeletal muscle
- 9.2 Describe the basic components of a reflex arc. Discuss how these components generate a reflex response.
- 9.3 Explain how all of the reflex components work together to specifically generate the stretch (muscle spindle), Golgi tendon, withdrawal, reciprocal innervation and crossed extensor reflex.
Module 10: Autonomic Nervous System
- 10.1 Differentiate between the central nervous system peripheral nervous system, and autonomic nervous system.
- 10.2 Describe the conditions when each division of the autonomic nervous system is most active
- 10.3 Describe the arrangement of the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons and ganglia
- 10.4 Describe the components of the enteric nervous system and its function
- 10.5 Explain the main neurotransmitters of the ANS and the neurons that release them
- 10.6 Name the main receptors of the ANS and which neurotransmitters bind to them
Module 11: Brain
- 11.1 Name the major regions of the brain
- 11.2 List the major lobes, fissures and functional regions of the cerebral cortex
- 11.3 Describe the locations and functions of the diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum
- 11.4 Explain the roles of the limbic system, reticular formation, and the reward center
- 11.5 Explain the importance of the higher brain functions of sleep and memory
Module 12: Special Senses
- 12.1 Describe the location, structure, and function of taste receptors
- 12.2 Describe the olfactory pathway
- 12.3 Describe the structure and function of the optical and neural components of the eye
- 12.4 Describe how photons of light are converted to action potentials
- 12.5 Describe the structures of the ear and how they relate to sound transduction
- 12.6 Explain how the ear distinguishes between sound pitch and loudness
- 12.7 Describe how the semicircular canals and the otolith organs are associated with balance
This course does not require you to purchase a textbook.
We understand the financial burdens that a student can face and we as Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) teachers want to do our part to help out. Therefore, we have created a compilation of our own readings, videos, web links, tutorials and other such digital media to help you through this course. The readings and associated material are designed so that a student who is adequately prepared can expect to spend 9 hours a week and be very successful in the course. However, we need our students to realize and understand that the materials in this course are not perfect (although they are always getting better) and that some students may be coming into the course less prepared than others (for example: some students may be returning to school after many years of not attending school and other students may be coming in with very little experience in biology). We expect that for students who feel underprepared, the learning experience may be MUCH more complete if the student acquires a supplementary textbook or at least develops very good research skills outside of the materials we provide. As with any college-level course, students should EXPECT to research beyond the materials in this class to help themselves more fully understand concepts. If you decide that you would like a textbook to help understand concepts, then it does not matter which textbook it is as long as it is a two-semester A&P course textbook. Even the edition of the textbook that you get does not matter very much in most cases. For this reason, students can often find a very good reference textbook online for quite cheap. Below are some textbooks that previous students found helpful.
- Anatomy and Physiology by Seeley, Stephens and Tate; Any edition but newer is better
- Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology by Vanputte Regan and Russo; Any edition
- Human Anatomy & Physiology by Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn; Any edition but newer is better
- Other textbooks are fine as well, just look for an Anatomy and Physiology textbook that is used for a two-semester general A&P course.
- You may even consider a free online textbook. One of the best is called "OpenStax". Here is a link to that resource.
Previous students expound their knowledge by researching on the Internet. Students who spend the time and effort to do good internet research learn the material very well.
We welcome input on the class materials, however, the difficulty of the course or the exams, the amount of material to learn will not change. We know the course is difficult. It has been a difficult course for many decades and is necessarily so as this course must teach the foundation science for health care professions.
Access to a Computer with Internet
It is your responsibility to find a computer with internet access. (High-speed access provides an easier learning experience.)
**Online Only Students** Microphone and Earphones
You are required to have a microphone for your computer and a set of earphones that will work with your computer and the online meeting tool (Adobe Connect).
- Four proctored lecture exams (each worth 100 points)
- One proctored comprehensive final (200 points)
**This course includes five proctored exams.**
Online students are required to take BIO 264 exams in I-Learn using a built-in proctoring service called Proctorio. Students do not need to find their own proctor. During Module 2, you will download the required plug-in.
Please post exam or proctoring questions on the Questions and Conversations discussion board.
Notes from Readings
Notes from Readings are worth 12 points. Each module contains vital readings housed within the Study Guide. In order to perform well within this course and subsequent Biology courses, it is critical that you complete the readings for each module. Your notes will need to be in your own words and represent what you are learning as based on the course readings. By taking notes, you will be better prepared to take the practice quizzes, to engage with the module's Collaboration Board, and to take your exams. (12 points total)
The Collaboration Board is an ungraded activity but is critical to your success. The Collaboration Board has two purposes:
- To allow the instructor and students to share helpful hints/videos/websites
- To allow the students a platform to discuss challenging practice questions.
It is recommended that you participate frequently by asking questions, answering questions, or sharing study tools you have found helpful. Consider this as an opportunity to improve your understanding and to deepen your thinking as you learn from one another in preparation for the exams you will take.
During the semester you take 36 quizzes. There are 20 questions in each quiz. Quizzes contribute 72 points to your final grade. Each quiz has unlimited attempts. Your highest attempt is graded. Repeat the quizzes, study the questions and each answer. Explain why the correct answer is correct and why the detractors are incorrect. Remember, your highest grade counts so if you take the quiz again and do worse, only the highest grade is recorded.
I-Learn drops the four lowest quiz scores. At the beginning of the semester, I-Learn drops the first four quiz scores. Don't be alarmed! As you take more quizzes, I-Learn correctly calculates your final grade.
Within the first few modules of the course, you will be asked to meet with your instructor to discuss your progress. Your instructor will inform the class when they are ready to set up online appointments. Make sure to come prepared to this meeting so that your instructor can address any of your questions or concerns.
There are 690 points possible in this course. The course grade will be determined by:
- Four proctored lecture exams (400 points)
- One proctored comprehensive final (200 points)
- Notes from readings (12 points)
- Quizzes (72 points)
- Syllabus Quiz (2 points)
- Research Consent (1 point)
- End-of-Semester Survey (3 points)
You are responsible for your learning, so be engaged and be involved in completing all the preparatory work so that you will perform well on the exams.
There are other forms of academic dishonesty besides cheating and plagiarism. Please read through the examples listed. This is not an all-inclusive list but is a sample of what is still considered dishonest, including sharing course quiz questions with online quiz and testing sites.
From the Student Honor Office
Inadvertent plagiarism involves the inappropriate, but non-deliberate, use of another's words, ideas, or data without proper attribution. Although not a violation of the Honor Code, it is a form of academic misconduct for which an instructor can impose appropriate academic sanctions.
- Continuing work on an examination or assignment after the allocated time has elapsed.
- Submitting the same work for more than one class without disclosure and approval.
- Getting equal credit for group assignments when equal work was not done.
- Using unauthorized materials during an examination or while completing an assignment.
- Collaborating on an examination or assignment without authorization.
- Obtaining or providing to another a test or answers to a test that has not been administered.
|A||93% - 100%|
|A-||90% - 92%|
|B+||87% - 89%|
|B||83% - 86%|
|B-||80% - 82%|
|C+||77% - 79%|
|C||73% - 76%|
|C-||70% - 72%|
|D+||67% - 69%|
|D||63% - 66%|
|D-||60% - 62%|
|F||Less than 60%|
You should read the following course policies and make sure that you understand what these policies mean to you regarding your interactions with the instructor and other students in this course. If you have questions about any of these policies, you should contact your instructor immediately.
On average, it takes approximately 9-12 hours to complete all the learning activities for each module. This is the amount of time that you should expect to put into this class each week if you want to get a passing (C) grade. If you want a higher grade, you may need to put in more study time. In order to keep up with the assignments and learn the most from this class, you should make sure you schedule regular time each day to study for this class. With this course, there is no "time off" for holidays that might occur during the week. Consequently, you should make sure to arrange your study schedule so that any holiday activities do not keep you from completing learning activities.
Students should not ask instructors to extend deadlines or allow makeups. However, it is understood that emergencies happen. It is the responsibility of the student to notify the instructor of such emergencies. If the student fails to notify the instructor of an emergency a late test will be rewarded but docked one letter grade.
In this class, our interactions with each other should be guided at all times by the following principles of personal honor:
Principles of Personal Honor -- "True at all Times"
- Personal honor is integrity in fulfilling commitments, responsibilities, and covenants.
- Personal honor begins with willing obedience and is fully developed when we consistently govern ourselves by true principles.
- Personal honor increases spiritual strength through the ministry of the Holy Ghost.
- Personal honor is central to every aspect of our lives, including the BYUIdaho experience.
- Personal honor brings us joy and happiness; deepens our desire to love, serve, and lift others; and ultimately helps us to become more like the Savior.
You should make sure that you understand the above principles of personal honor. It is important for all class members to strive to follow the above principles in our associations with one another.
If you have any questions about how Personal Honor is related to academic honesty or the university's Dress and Grooming Standards, you may visit the University Standards web page (http://www.byui.edu/student-honor-office/ces-honor-code) to get more information.
Students with Disabilities
BYU-Idaho is committed to providing a working and learning atmosphere which reasonably accommodates qualified persons with disabilities. If you have any disability which may impair your ability to complete this course successfully, please contact the Services for Students with Disabilities Office by phone at 208-496-9210 or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Reasonable academic accommodations are reviewed for all students who have qualified documented disabilities. Services are coordinated with the student and instructor by this office. If you need assistance or feel you have been unlawfully discriminated against on the basis of disability, you may seek resolution through established policy and procedures. Contact the Human Resources Office at 208-496-1700 or via email at email@example.com.
We have made every attempt to make this course accessible as possible. This course contains
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination against any participant in an educational program which receives federal funds, including federal loans and grants. Title IX also covers student-to-student sexual harassment. If you encounter unlawful sexual harassment or